Tuesday, May 19, 2020

The Morality Of Torture On The Middle East Today And The...

Morality of Torture. With the issues going on in the Middle East today and the war on terrorism, the use of torture including murder, is a very widespread and controversial issue. Torture is viewed as morally wrong; therefore it is also legally wrong as well, not just on the home front but internationally as well (Is Torture Ever Justified). However, torture is sometimes not only right, but is needed for a greater good. With the case of torture you may not be able to see whether it is clearly wrong or right. This essay will address three situations where torture may be viewed as correct on a moral standpoint. It is clearly and completely wrong if torture is used on an innocent victim without a true greater good trying to be achieved. Saving innocent lives, taking down terrorists, and punishing them in institutions are cases where torture is should be sound. Even more so, torture in those cases should be welcomed as methods of punishment and further advancement in situations where int elligence needs to extracted for the saving of lives or the take down of terrorist activities. In no way should the use of torture be legalized for the use of the public, but in uses for the armed forces and law enforcement there should be rules and regulations that protect them if the use of torture is absolutely necessary. Millers definition of torture is the â€Å"intentional infliction of extreme physical suffering on some non-consenting, defenseless, other person for the purpose of breakingShow MoreRelatedOrigin Of Torture As A Method1942 Words   |  8 PagesPro Tortue Origin of torture as a method The origins of torture as a method of interrogation can be dated back to the 6th century AD, back to Roman times. Many high ranking Roman officials would use torture as a ways and means to extract information from their enemies. Many high ranking Roman jurists showed the virtues of torture; they stated that it would lead to the highest forms of truth coming true. In the ages to come, we saw a number of different European countires apply Roman law to theirRead MoreEssay Pirates and Emperors by Noam Chomsky2692 Words   |  11 Pagesinterpretations of the same incident. Chomsky uses the passage to discuss terrorism in its most literal sense as referring â€Å"†¦to the threat or the use of violence to intimidate or coerce (generally for political ends), whether it is the wholesale terrorism of the emperor or the retail terrorism of the thief.† [2] To discuss the existence and morality of ‘retail’ and ‘wholesale’ terrorism using the above definition, the very cogent example of Israel will be usedRead MoreTerrorism And The Pursuit Of Political Aims1853 Words   |  8 Pagesas an act of terrorism, although technically there are 100 other different ways to define terrorism. When you hear the word terrorism in the United States, majority will automatically think of 9/11 or Osama Bin Laden. A lot automatically think of these two topics because they are not aware that terrorism occurs all over the world and not just in the United States. Overall, terrorism comes with a lot of concerns and information many need to know about. As mentioned earlier, terrorism is and can beRead MoreHoward Zinn Defines American Exceptionalism As The Belief1845 Words   |  8 Pageswith Australians to justify the Australian Labor Party. German exceptionalism during World War II is another example of a country with a similar self-proclaimed leadership position. Their exceptionalism demonstrated that such beliefs can be extremely dangerous and fuel tyranny, dictators, and armed conflict. Extreme German exceptionalism has since come to an end, but was indeed a driving factor in the world war and in the forceful period of imperialism across Europe. Clearly, America is not the onlyRead More A Fascist America: How Close Are We? Essay2684 Words   |  11 Pageseffect, practically immune from the fascist virus that had wreaked such havoc in Europe and Asia in previous decades: there was a kind of innocence, back then, that acted as a vaccine against this dreaded affliction. Fascism – the demonic offspring of war – was practically a stranger to American soil. After all, it had been a century since America had been a battleground, and the sense of invulnerability that is the hallmark of youth permeated our poli tics and culture. Nothing could hurt us: we wereRead MoreMorality of Warfare: Case Study Drone3702 Words   |  15 Pages20 July 2014 The Morality of Warfare: Case Study; Drone Warfare Advancements in warfare technology and weaponry have been the defining factors in battle since the dawn of civilization. The one with the bigger gun usually wins. This is a fact that hasn’t changed much since the beginnings of warfare and holds true today and in today’s world Drones have become the next warfare advantage. Along with any advancement in warfare weaponry comes a very heated and controversial discussion about its actualRead MoreAn Analysis of Terrorism Essay9824 Words   |  40 PagesAn Analysis of Terrorism On September 11, 2001, every person was stunned with the earth shaking news that the World Trade Center (WTC), the highest building in the world was attacked by terrorist. This was done by hi-jacking two commercial airplanes which plowed the two famous sites. More than 5,000 American was feared dead. This was the most recent and most devastating terrorist act that brought terrorism into the timelight. Terrorism is a term of uncertain legal content. The term itselfRead MoreThe Phenomenon Of Violent Political Islamism3203 Words   |  13 Pagesagendas in the Muslim world†. It is the most dominant ideology in the Muslim world. While not all political Islamism is violent, it is undeniable that violent extremism occurs in the Middle East, North Africa, and South Asia. In this essay, I analyse the phenomenon of violent political Islamism, focusing on the Middle East. I investigate its macro-level historical and political origins, and the micro-level factors which influence the use of violence. I discuss its aims and grievances, and provide suggestionsRead MoreGp Essay Mainpoints24643 Words   |  99 Pagesthan it unites b. Religion and politics c. Science and religion 6. Terrorism a. Can terrorism ever be eradicated? 7. Sports a. True purpose of sports nowadays b. Sports and Media 8. Foreign Aid a. How effective is Foreign Aid? 9. Migration a. Is migration/having foreigners good? 10. Subjects a. Literature b. History c. Mathematics d. Universal language 11. Businesses a. Business morality b. Charities as businesses 12. Democracy a. Good vs. Bad 13. SocialRead MoreRhetorical Analysis Of Harold Pinter s The Room 9709 Words   |  39 Pagesthe events may seem unfamiliar at first glance. If you press me for a definition, I’d say that what goes in my plays is realistic, but what I’m doing is not realism† (Pinter, Harold Pinter: Plays, 2 ix) Widely acknowledged as one of the great post-war generation dramatists, Harold Pinter’s fame rests on not only his popular dramas but also on his political activism which is rooted in his concern for people and their condition in realms which can be termed as social, professional or political. In

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Essay on Drones Unmanned Aerial Vehicles - 3207 Words

Like much of today’s technology, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles attribute their creation to the military. The idea of using unmanned aircraft has long been a dream for the military -- scouting planes without any casualties to report should something go wrong, air strikes with only time and money to lose, and the ability to wage war without losing a single life. Well the third one may perhaps not be realistic – as Afghanistan has shown, lack of ground troops leaves certain entities unchecked.1 However, it may be argued that â€Å"they represent a significant step toward the eventual automation of the battlefield—one in which teleoperated or robotic systems replace many soldiers.†2 Either way, these machines do create a less expensive and more†¦show more content†¦Naturally, without the military’s deep pockets, research in this department is much slower. It is becoming clear that UAVs will slowly replace piloted aircraft. â€Å"Decades from now, much—if not most—of the Air Force’s firepower will likely come from UAVs. They will conduct almost all missions now assigned to manned aircraft, from intelligence gathering and counter-air operations, to operational and even strategic attack.†6 See the section on Possible Uses. What are UAVs? Unmanned Aerial Vehicles are (the name is deceptive I know) airplanes that fly without a pilot aboard. UAVs can be directed by an external controller or be pre-programmed. Sizes vary greatly on these machines; they can be as small as a couple feet, to having a 200-foot wingspan, larger than the Boeing 747.7 UAVs come in many different designs; they can be anything from â€Å"model airplanes to missiles to ball-shaped vehicles with helicopter blades.†8 Currently, these vehicles carry only non-lethal payloads, however unmanned aerial combat vehicles are in the works.9 Often UAVs that are remotely piloted are referred to as RPVs, or remotely piloted vehicles. These â€Å"low-cost joystick-controlled† machines provide â€Å"a significant boost to U.S. war-fighting capability.†10 These machines can remain above targets for extended periods of time taking high-resolution pictures. â€Å"It is this ‘persistentShow MoreRelatedDrone Warfare : Unmanned Aerial Vehicles1669 Words   |  7 PagesDrone warfare, first strongly used by the Central Intelligence Agency to target Osama bin Laden after he led a series of attack in the United States on September eleventh. During the time of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom, drones had a usage time of approximately 100,000 flight hours when performing tasks in these operations. Also known as unmanned aerial vehicles, the primary use of drones today is for surveillance. However, during recent years, drones have had other usesRead MoreDrones : Unmanned Aerial Vehicles1198 Wo rds   |  5 PagesDrones have recently hit the news time and time again within the last decade, and frequently lead to a debate. The majority of those heated conversations often involve the United States of America. Those passionate discussions have ignited a spark in a series of countless debates dealing with drones and the future they possess with the United States of America. Some may not know, but drones are also known as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles or UAV’s for short. A UAV is exactly what it sounds like. FirstRead MoreDrones : Unmanned Aerial Vehicles1246 Words   |  5 Pageswhen we hear the word drone, most of us automatically add the word â€Å"attack† on the end or think of something negative. That’s because mostly, drones are frequently used for surveillance, intelligence and, ultimately, offensive operations. Drones also known as ‘Unmanned Aerial Vehicles’, or UAV’s are mostly used in situations where manned flight is too difficul t or dangerous, making them ideal for warfare. Increasingly, the United States has come to rely on the use of drones to counter the terroristRead MoreDrones And Unmanned Aerial Vehicles1714 Words   |  7 PagesDrones or Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are aircrafts, remotely controlled by on the ground pilots or autonomous programing, which may be equipped with missiles and bombs for attack missions. Drones have become a major strategy instrument in U.S. counterterrorism program. In Yemen, Somalia, Iraq, Pakistan, and Afghanistan, U.S. drones observe these countries from the skies and occasionally are used to launch lethal strikes against suspected terrorists. According to the Bureau of Investigative JournalismRead MoreDrones : An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle ( Uav )1062 Words   |  5 PagesDrones, a more recent topic of controversy are changing the views of the world, some suspect for the better while other believe for the worse. Until recently, drones have become increasingly popul ar and have influenced an increase in civilian use. Drones hold a substantial amount of benefits as they do negative. As drones become more popular, deeper regulations should be put in place. Protecting the society is the top priority. To do this, the government needs to regulate drone use for governmentRead MoreIntroducing The Hydro Drone : An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle894 Words   |  4 PagesIntroducing the Hydro Drone The global drone market has exploded in the last few years. A drone is an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) piloted by a remote control or computer. Hobbyists use drones to capture stunning aerial footage that used to be captured with a helicopter and cinematographer. The UAV industry is becoming more than a hobby, the commercialization of UAV applications, such as delivering packages and medical supplies to remote locations, has become a reality. The worldwide drone industry wasRead MoreAerial vehicle is also known as drone. It’s an aircraft without a human pilot on it mostly under1700 Words   |  7 PagesAerial vehicle is also known as drone. It’s an aircraft without a human pilot on it mostly under control of the American government. Its flight pattern is organized either autonomously by computer systems or by remote control from ground base or some other vehicle. The typical launch and recovery/landing method of a UAV is monitored by an exterior on the ground. In the beginning, UAVs were simple unmanned aerial vehicles to which remote control came gradually which advanced to autonomous controlRead MoreShould U.S.A. Use Drones to Combat Terrorism?1154 Words   |  5 Pages The CIA and the U.S. military have been using drones for more than 100 years, but only in the past 10 years the public has realized how powerful this technology is. Drones should be used to combat terrorism in Afghanistan because they are a step into the future for warfare. Drones are some of the most used technologies that are used to combat terrorism in foreign countries, and there is a reason for that. Drones are used to spy, track, and assassinate high priority terrorists. Regular ways of warfareRead MoreUnmanned Aerial Vehicle Is The Future Of Package Delivery1193 Words   |  5 Pagesplane, no it’s a delivery drone. Delivery drones are the future of package delivery. A delivery drone is an unmanned aerial vehicle. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV’s) have a long rich history of good and bad testimonials, â€Å"the first noted use was in 1849 by the Australians when they launched two hundred pilotless balloons mounted with bombs against the city of Venice†11. An other milestone took shape during World War II when countries employed the use of radio controlled unmanned bombers. The last sixtyRead MoreU nmanned Aerial Vehicles780 Words   |  3 PagesDrones or UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles), have been around for a number of years. The concept of drones started as an aerial target practice to train military personnel during World War 1. Innovation for drones quickly grew from an aerial target to an aerial torpedo that would explode at a specific time. Today drones are directed by self-guiding computers or a manually operated by a particular remote control. They are now more commonly known for their military use, not for their versatility usage

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Core Ideas And Themes In Charlotte Brontes Jane Eyre

Introduction of core ideas and themes in chapters 2 and 3 of Jane Eyre Of the various themes attributed to and found in Charlotte Bronte’s Jane Eyre, many are introduced within the first chapters, providing a base to be mirrored, re-used and developed later on. As a recurring element of the Gothic genre, the supernatural and its association with the human mind are a crucial part of the novel’s atmosphere, and act as a constant ominous presence in Jane’s life, starting with her early reading materials and, more significantly, with the red room scene. Jane Eyre is also qualified as a bildungsroman, following an individual and their evolution from childhood to adulthood, and the first part of the book provide, through its description of†¦show more content†¦Jane’s claustrophobic fear of the red room is increased by the fact that she cannot leave it. When she realizes that the door is locked, the room seems to take a whole different dimension, changing shape as her fear grows. When she returns to her place and looks in t he mirror, she remarks: All looked colder and darker in that visionary hollow than in reality: and the strange little figure there gazing at me, with a white face and arms specking the gloom, and glittering eyes of fear moving where all else was still, had the effect of a real spirit: I thought it like one of the tiny phantoms, half fairy, half imp, Bessie’s evening stories represented as coming out of lone, ferny dells in moors, and appearing before the eyes of belated travellers. The realization of her confinement seems to be the trigger of Jane’s fear of the supernatural. Despite the already heavy atmosphere of the room, she had only mentioned concrete, physical and factual things up to this point. This suggests that her mental distress may be the cause of her sudden dread of ghosts and other creatures. Her thoughts spiral out of reason until she convinces herself that Mrs. Reed’s bad treatment of her is going to anger Mr. Reed’s spirit, causing him to come back to haunt them all. It seems even Jane is somewhat aware that her emotions are causing these thoughts, and might make the situation worse,Show MoreRelatedTextual Reading/ Literary Analysis on Dracula1720 Words   |  7 Pagesthere is a hero that is struggling against an inescapable fate. Bram Stoker uses gothic elements such as isolated settings, gloom and doom, and secret passages in Dracula in which portray it to be an excellent gothic genre in relations to Jane Eyre, a novel b y Charlotte Bronte. Stoker uses isolated settings to perpetuate fear of the unknown. Just like telling myths, stories, and grim tales, inside of each kind, there are always those spooky, mysterious, and petrifying â€Å"things† that makes everyone goRead MoreStructuralism and Interpretation Ernest Hemingways Cat in Ther Ain9284 Words   |  38 Pagesg., - this enterprise has been Northrop Frye (1957) and Frank Kermode (1966) almost exclusively dominated by European scholars - Propp, Bremond, Greimas, Levi-Strauss, Todorov and Barthes, among others. Crucial to this tradition of enquiry are the ideas of function and transformation. In the theory of Greimas for instance, all narrative consists essentially of the transfer of an object or value from one actant to another. An actant performs a certain function in the story which may be classified as

Robert B Edgerton s Life Of Psychological Anthropology

Robert B Edgerton teaches in the department of psychiatry and anthropology at the University of California at Los Angeles. He is the president of society of psychological anthropology there. He is also a fellow at the center of advanced study in the behavioral science. Edgerton was born on November 28, 1931. Edgerton has written about many topics throughout his anthropology career. These topics include: mental retardation, social, deviant behavior and social well-being. Other major publications Edgerton wrote were, Beliefs and translational practices and The troubled heart of Africa: the history of the Congo imprenta. I reached out to Edgerton by email, but his in-box was full and unfortunately I couldn t find further information†¦show more content†¦Sickness, suffering and premature death happens in all societies but how they occur can vary. Maladaptive practices and beliefs can contribute to sickness, suffering and premature death. Many societies have flaws with people being unhappy. This discontent then turns in to rebellion which can destroy a culture and/or society. Societies, cultures and their populations can die in many different ways they can die physically, mentally, spiritually or emotionally. Also in culture adaptation should be reconsidered when cultures start to die. Many cultures go extinct due to warfare. With all of these topics it creates a broad explanation to what culture is and how they can be categorized. I believe that Edgerton did a fine job of describing what makes Societies Sick in their own way. He did this though defining maladaptation â€Å"I shall first define it as the failure of a population or its culture to survive because of the inadequacy or harmfulness of one or more of its beliefs or institutions.† He then continues to define maladaptation as â€Å"when enough members of a population are sufficiently dissatisfied with one or more of their social institutions or cultural beliefs that the viability of th eir society is threatened.† This is a successful manor to start the book off with because it then leads in to how maladaptation affects societies and can make them sick in the many different ways that it does. Each maladaptive

Constructive Relations at Top Trucking

Question: Discuss about the Constructive Relations at Top Trucking. Answer: Introduction Organizations during the contemporary period are compelled to adopt to change on continuous basis after realizing that global markets in particular are continuously being characterised by uncertainty (Asrar-al-Haq and Kuchinke, 2016). This means that change is inevitable for companies that are concerned about achieving their desired goals in the face of constantly changing environments in which they operate. However, success in implementing change in the operations of the organization can be achieved through effective leadership (Saari and Judge, 2004). Leaders often adopt different leadership styles they believe can positively influence the behaviour of their followers in their endeavor to provide the direction towards goal attainment. As such, this report seeks to analyse how changes in Top Trucking Companys workplace practices improved its performance as well as the complementary role they played to each other. The report also discusses the risks likely to be encountered in the ev ent that the yard manager or George leaves company after full implementation of these new changes introduced. The last part of the report discusses the extent to which blue collar unions like the Transport Workers Union can undertake various workplace changes. Complementary roles of new work practices The new manager brought a raft of changes to the Top Trucking Companys workplace policies contrary to autocratic leadership that was used by George Psaros who would tell people what to do or at time would yell at them. Some of the workplace practices introduced by the new manager include but are not limited to the following: engaging both drivers and union representatives, rational approach to problem solving, continuously worked to improve occupational health and safety and the drivers received more training. These work practices were geared towards improving the overall working conditions of the employees within the organization in a bid to improve its performance as well. It can be seen from the case study that the change brought by the new yard manager was transformational and to that effect, it can also be stated that he used transformational leadership style. Transformational leaders are leaders who show great consideration for individual needs of employees such as intellectual stimulation and they are also charismatic (Robbins, 1993). These are leaders who significantly inspire the followers to convert their personal interests for the good of the company. This is exactly what the new manager did to the employees at Top Trucking Company. The raft of workplace practices that were introduced significantly contributed to improved performance in the Trucking Company. It is evident from the case study that the workplace practices introduced by the yard manager complement each other. For instance, the yard manager made a policy aimed at engaging both drivers and union representatives. In this case, improved performance by drivers would complement the efforts of the union representatives to ensure that the working conditions of the drivers were good. The aspect of rational approach to problem solving by the yard manager played a complementary role with improved employee performance since the employees naturally developed respect for their new leader. On the other hand, continuous improvement in occupational health and safety also played a complementary role with improved driver competencies and skills in performing the tasks expected of them. On top of this, it can be observed that both the leader and employees played a complementary role to each other since their collaboration in various aspects led to improved performance in the organization. Schultz (2007) suggest that both leaders and followers in the organization play a complementary role to each other where the leader provides direction toward achievement of the goals while the followers respond by putting optimum performance to ensure that the desired goals are achieved. This notion has been supported by Asrar-al-Haq and Kuchinke (2016) found that there exists a significant relationship between transformational leadership and employee performance in their study. This shows the extent to which the employees and the followers in the organization play a complementary role to each other. Essentially, the efforts of the leader within the organisation should be complemented by the effort put by the employees in their work toward the attainment of the set goals and object ives. Risks of sustaining new changes introduced at the Trucking Company There are risks that are likely to be encountered in attempting to sustain these changes in the event that George or the yard manager moves. First and foremost, it should be noted that leaders are not universal especially in the way they approach different workplace practices. According to Zaccaro (2008), leaders have different personality traits that shape their leadership styles. According to Mohammed et al. (2014), leadership style involves different patterns of behaviour that are shown by the leaders when they deal with the employees. There are different leadership styles and each leader can choose a style that suits his or her needs of steering the company towards the desired direction with regard to goal attainment. A closer analysis of the case study of Top Trucking Company shows that the yard manager introduced democratic leadership style which was by far different from the autocratic leadership style that was used by George Psaros. Basically, democratic leadership, also known as participative leadership style involves persuasion and considers the feelings of the employees and encourages their participation in decision making process (Mohammed et al., 2014). This leadership style is designed to give the followers greater job satisfaction as has been the case in the above case study. Therefore, if the yard manager is to leave, then it may be difficult for the company to get a similar replacement in every respect. The employees particularly the drivers were beginning to realise the benefits of the changes that were proposed by the yard manager such that they would not question them though at first they seemed not to be comfortable with them. The new leadership style utilised by the yard manager had slowly been adopted into the culture of the organization of which all the employees were happy to identify with. This shows that the yard manager utilised change-oriented leadership described as the ability by leaders to implement changes and finding persuasive communication methods to convince people about the significance of that change (Khuong and Hoang, 2015). Again, this shows that change is a process which can be implemented at a slow pace for it to be accepted by the members of the organization. In the unfortunate event that the yard manager leaves the company, this move can create a wide gap which may be difficult to close especially if he is replaced by a manager who uses a different leadership style. This means that the employees in the organization would need to be reoriented in order for them to familiarize with the new leadership style that would be introduced by the new manager who will replace the current one. T his is quite a daunting task given that implementing change in the organization is not an event but a process that requires concerted effort by different stakeholders who are likely to be affected by it. The major risk in such a scenario is that the widely accepted changes by the current manager could end up being reversed should a different leader with different leadership style be appointed in the company. This will negatively impact the performance of the organization after witnessing significant developments that improved job satisfaction among the drivers. 4.0 Personal reflection about role of Transport Workers Union In my own opinion, I think unions like Transport Workers Union are more of less likely to engage in changes of this magnitude than public and service sector unions mainly because these are concerned about collective safety of the employees under their jurisdiction. In other words, bodies like TWU are concerned with enforcing legislation that is primarily concerned with ensuring the organizations they represent adhere to the laws so that the safety concerns of the employees are taken into consideration. This type of union puts more emphasis on the safety of the employees and other stakeholders who may be affected by their operations. The reason why they may not be able to make changes in the workplace practices is that they are primarily concerned with providing a framework upon which their representatives can design policies that take into consideration all the safety requirements as stated by the law. In other words, it is the duty of the organizations to make necessary workplace ch anges they desire instead of the TWU performing that task for them. This is just an umbrella body that provides the legal framework for the operations of its members. In order to establish if you are right about this claim made above, you only need to observe the internal operations of transport operations represented by TWU and see if they have any representative on the ground within the company. These blue collar unions promulgate laws which they expect all the transport operators to obey. They are only tough in the event that there has been a disaster in an organization it represents for failure of upholding the safety principles stated in the law they enforce to protect the employees. In other words, representatives from these unions do not directly make changes in the workplace practices of different companies since they operate outside companies. The TWU plays a major role in controlling the operations of their members through the use of legislation instead of them actively participating in making workplace changes for individual companies. This is the duty of the internal leadership of the organization that is aware of the importance of cha nge at a given moment. Conclusion Over and above, it can be observed that organisations are compelled to adopt change mainly due to the changes taking place in the environments they operate. Effective leadership is very important if the company is to implement change successfully. This has been illustrated by the case of Top Trucking Company which witnessed performance improvement in leaps and bounds following successful implementation of a raft of workplace practices by the new yard manager. These changes were also found to be complementary to each other and this significantly improved the performance as well as job satisfaction of the employees. However, credit goes to the leadership style of the new yard manager which was oriented towards fulfilling the needs of the workers. This notion has been supported by Mosadeghrad and Ferdosi (2013) who found in their study that employees job satisfaction and commitment depend on the leadership style used by the managers. References Asrar-al-Haq, M. Kuchinke, K.P. (2016). Impact of leadership styles on employees attitude towards their leader and performance: Empirical evidence from Pakistani banks. Future Business Journal, Volume 2, Issue 1, p, 54-64. Cooper, B. Waring, P. (2009). Employment Relations: Theory and Practice. Sydney: McGraw-Hill. Khuong M.N and Hoang, D.T. (2015). The Effects of Leadership Styles on Employee Motivation in Auditing Companies in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. International Journal of Trade, Economics and Finance, Vol. 6, No. 4. Mohammed, U.D. et al. (2014). The Relationship between Leadership Styles and Employees Performance in Organizations (A Study of Selected Business Organizations in Federal Capital Territory, Abuja Nigeria). European Journal of Business and Management, Vol.6, No.22. Mosadeghrad, A.M. Ferdosi, M. (2013). Leadership, Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment in Healthcare Sector: Proposing and Testing a Model Mater Sociomed, Vol 25, (2), p. 121-126. Robbins, S.P. (1993). Organizational behavior: Concepts, controversies and applications. 6th Edition. New jersey, NJ: Prentice Hall. Saari, L.M. Judge, T.A. (2004). Employee attitudes and job satisfaction. Human Resource Management, 43 (4) (2004), pp. 395407 Schultz, R. (2007). Human resources management. JB: Prentice Hall. Swanepoel, G. (2000). Perspectives in human resources management. CT: Pearson. Zaccaro, S. J. (2008): Trait-based Perspectives of Leadership. American Psychologist, 62-6-16

Ideas Of Motivation And Learning and Impacts †Free Samples

Question: Discuss about the Motivation and Learning. Answer: Introduction The purpose of this unit is to explain that how motivation acts like a boon for the successful learner by taking charge of managing their learning skills. For the accomplishment of such goals, this study has determined several factors for the motivation to learn. It is well defined that learning and motivation are the inter-related processes(Deci, Vallerand, Pelletier, 1991). The guiding principles of motivation define that if an individual wants to change their motivation than his/her beliefs, and perceptions will also get changed(Ghaedi Jam, 2014). To become a successful learner or anyone who wants to gain expertise requires to spent considerable efforts and remain persistent in acquisition of knowledge and development of skills. Motivation Motivation refers to probably a factor that is considered to be most important from the point of learning enhancement. Multitude theories were designed to explain the motivation while some out of all has discussed about the aspects of motivation. It is defined that the motivation is like an incentive or energy that drives the individual for taking an action(Daw Shohamy, 2008). It is like a dynamic internal construct that reflects about the individuals emotional and psychological states during certain period of time. Body paragraph Motivation is like a stimulating factor that induces, energizes and inspires the people to work willingly by taking initiative, confidence, zeal and satisfaction in an integrated manner for achieving the desired goals. It acts like a moral boosting stimulate. On the other hand, learning is like a psychological change in behavior that results from experience or mechanistically changes in organism that result from experience(Xie, Durrington, Yen, 2011). Motivation creates a positive impact over learning as without motivation learning does not exist. It is the motivation only that energizes the person to achieve the tasks and goals. In the process of learning, motivation helps in boosting the speed of individual to work towards the important tasks and achieve the goals(Rehman Haider, 2013). It is a way through which learners can preserve their capability to find that what kind of behavior can be exerted and how actual goals can be achieved. Focus for literature Learning is not at all about memorizing of any subject matter while it is like a secondary language that engages the learners into culture learning. Under such learning process, motivation plays a key role. This is further illustrated through focusing over literatures: According to Karen Clayton F. B. (2010), Motivation is the factor that kick start the processes, lubricates the parts and fuels the engines to keep the process running. Without motivation, one cannot think about earning and once the learner has started learning then it may not be able to maintain the learning after experiencing the hardship in the processes(Karen Clayton, 2010). Consequently, the learners that were highly motivated for their goals and objectives found to have higher achievements than those with lower motivation. The researchers have found that the complexity in the process of motivation gets initiated through mainly three characteristics: learning of language, desires for learning the language and the motivational intensity. Another very common issue in the process of motivation is persistence. For keeping the individual engaged in any particular task, it is necessary to keep them persistent because it may be possible that they may get easily distracted while getting engaged in any task. Based on the source of self-determination theory, it is found that generally learners used to learn through two sources that are internal and external. Every individual learns either by getting intrinsically motivated or through externally driven(Hilgard Marquis, 2016). The individuals that were intrinsically motivated were found to be engaged in the activities due to their internal interests, excitement and joy while externally driven people perform their action with an anticipation of some other outcome apart from learning. Apparently, there is another state of motivation that is referred to as amotivation. It is a situation under which learner lacks in intention to get engaged in learning activity. He/she doesnt feel worthwhile to make any efforts for learning due to the results of getting externally controlled. Continue with the similar perspective, Hadi Hassankhani (2015) had illustrated that intrinsic motivation heps the learner to learn in a much better way. It boosts their powers to get more process-oriented, more prone to self-learning and development and remain persistant with for its achievements. However, it cannot be said that extrinsic motivation does not works at all(Hadi Hassankhani, 2015). It is investigated that in some or the another form extrinsic motivation also plays a vivid role like in the educational actvities where the things are not interesting and enjoyable by nature. In such cases, to engage the learners in the tasks, teachers regulates the learners engagement through highlighting the importances of the things and pointing out that how it will support the learner in its own goals and interests of real life. Positive Impacts on Motivation After focusing over the above literatures, it is found that motivation is deemed self-perpetuating. It is the notion that leads to improvement in self-confidence for the one who wants to enhance their self-discipline that is rewarded for reaching the goals. When motivation is intrinsically or extrinsically exerted, it acts like a challenge for the people who dreamt of stretching beyond their perceived limits. According to Dickinson (1995), an individual can only get motivated when their personal motivations work in two ways. Firstly, they continue to apply the techniques until they found that what works best for their aligning team members and secondly, make an assurance that their motivation is grounded on right intentions. If an individual does not work by them and just forces others for achieving what he/she wants from them to do without making any consideration about actual needs and values, definitely ended up with temporary motivation (Dickinson, 1995). But it is only possible when others are also motivated. In the Self-Determination theory also, it is reviewed that there is a need to understand about the facts that will help in deriving appropriate actions in its respect. For that, it is necessary to spend some more time and discover the parameter that helps in creating knowledge for the team members in similar way. The thing that is only required for it is to become more creative and think in a non-traditional terms as to how to get people make them feel motivated for the accomplishment of their objectives(Garris, Ahlers, Driskell, 2002). Researcher Disagree One of the psychology and core principles of Xu (2011) has engendered that the criticism for motivation is not only characterized by the self-actualizers while there is long list of human psychologists objectives that are again questioned. Author has criticized for the point of Hilgard Marquis (2016) that motivation is like an effect that is characterized by the self-actualizers. According to him, every individuals acts in the way they were motivated. But it is very hard for them to accept the changes in the processes, that are unalterably inadequate(Xu, 2011). In contrast with this fact, he had argued that sometimes praise encourages complicacy in the achievement of goals and objectives. It is the situation that degrades and destroys the confidence of others also as it might be possible that there is existence of people who fits into another category. Motivation is not the grip that creates more or less impact on everybody. It is the psychology of their learning ability that impels the person to perform different actions(Rotgans Schmidt, 2012). Thus it can be said that motivation holds different internal forces that are responsible for different actions. Research questions compare According to Ornstein (1995), Learning and motivation are complex and composite construct. Under its content, perceived value is assumed to be one of the major determinants for the motivation of individual as it initiates them to accept and use a technology. Here, perceived value is one of that degree to which person believes that after using a particular information system they would be able to enhance their learning (Ornstein, 1995). Motivation often leads to improvement in individuals performance through identifying cognitive processes, goal directed behavior, efforts and energy, impacts of consequences, initiation and persistence. Simply learning about any skill does not mean that the individual will also be motivated to adopt it in practices. For the fulfillment of such needs, some of the parameters that are necessary to consider are possibility of higher grades, confidence of becoming a successful earner and spending of more time to participate in enjoyable activities(J. Huizen ga, 2009). The cognitive view of motivation initially focuses on the influences of individual behavior over their internal states like his/her goals, perceptions, beliefs and emotions. What the motivations of the researchers were To analyze the critical aspects of motivation, researchers have evaluated different statistics, facts and figures used by the reviewers in setting up the initial problems. They have worked over finding the leading source of ideas on which basis motivation is generated. It is revealed that generalizability is not an issue. Researchers have tried to describe the purpose of understanding the potential to discover or rediscover the factors that appears to be important from the learners point of view. Type of research By keeping the base of capabilities, authors have determined the leading sources of knowledge and skill that keeps the individual motivated. They have designed their own frameworks and models in line with international studies of Garris, Ahlers, Driskell (2002), Dickinson (1995), Vibulphol (2016), Rehman Haider (2013) and Rehman Haider (2013). Since, linkage between motivation and learning cannot be observed manually, thus authors have also taken the help of different data collection methods, including self-report questionnaires and observations for observing the phenomenon from different perspectives. To ensure the reliability of the analysis, that data was reviewed by two raters separately. An initial discussion about the inconsistencies was conducted before reaching the final agreement via additional comments in the questionnaires and observation sheets. Anything else of interest Based on above analysis, it can be said that the essence of matters, nature of the human mind and the origin of universe are the profound questions that has engaged the thinkers throughout the centuries(Vibulphol, 2016). Motivation is the term that is mostly used with the second language of learning. It is like an effort plus desire to achieve the goals of learning plus the favorable attitudes that defines different psychological effects. Consequently, it is suggested that strategies play a significant role as it is the tool for an active and self-directed involvement of the individual(Pan, 2009). It is the strategy that is essential for the development of communicative competence. Thus, an individual must adopt effective learning strategy by being motivated for setting plans and routines for the obtainment of appropriate goals and achievements. Conclusion As a basis of study, motivation was found to be a necessary component in the strategic behavior and precursor in the strategic use. It is the systematic form of study that defines a significant relationship between learning and motivation. However, some of the authors have argued that motivation is indirectly related with the learning achievements because motivation is the concept that explains about the behavior of the individual rather than describing that how people behave after being successful. Thus, motivation and learning is considered as significant factor that affects the choice of the individual. References Daw, N. D., Shohamy, D. (2008). The Cognitive Neuroscience Of Motivation And Learning. Social Cognition, 26(05), 593-620. Deci, E. L., Vallerand, R. J., Pelletier, L. G. (1991). Motivation and Education: The Self-Determination Perspective. Educational Psychologist, 26(3 and 4), 325-346. Dickinson, L. (1995). Autonomy and motivation a literature review. System, 23(02), 165-174. Garris, R., Ahlers, R., Driskell, J. E. (2002). Games, motivation, and learning:A research and practice model. Simulation Gaming, 33(04), 441-467. Ghaedi, Z., Jam, B. (2014). Relationship between Learning Styles and Motivation for Higher Education in EFL Students. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 04(06), 1232-1237. Hadi Hassankhani, A. M. (2015). The Relationship between Learning Motivation and Self Efficacy among Nursing Students. Res Dev Med Educ, 04(01), 97-101. Hilgard, E. R., Marquis, D. G. (2016). Motivation and learning. American Psychological Association, 2(1), 395-435. Huizenga, W. A. (2009). Mobile game-based learning in secondary education: engagement, motivation and learning in a mobile city game. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 25(04), 332-344. Karen Clayton, F. B. (2010). The relationship between motivation, learning strategies and choice of environment whether traditional orincluding an online component. British Journal of Educational Technology, 41(03), 349-364. Ornstein, A. C. (1995). Motivation and Learning. The High School Journal, 78(02), 105-110. Pan, P. L. (2009). The Relationship between Motivation and Achievement-A Survey of the Study Motivation of English Majors in Qingdao Agricultural University. English Language Teaching, 02(01), 123-128. Rehman, A., Haider, D. K. (2013). The Impact Of Motivation On Learning Of Secondary School Students In Karachi: An Analytical Study. Educational Research International, 02(02), 139-147. Rotgans, J. I., Schmidt, H. G. (2012). The Intricate Relationship Between Motivation and Achievement: Examining the Mediating Role of Self-Regulated Learning and Achievement-Related Classroom Behaviors. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 24(02), 197-208. Vibulphol, J. (2016). Students Motivation and Learning and Teachers Motivational Strategies in English Classrooms in Thailand. English Language Teaching, 09(04), 64-75. Xie, K., Durrington, V., Yen, L. L. (2011). Relationship between Students Motivation and their Participation in Asynchronous Online Discussions. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 07(01), 17-29. Xu, X. (2011). The Relationship between Language Learning Motivation and the Choice of Language Learning Strategies among Chinese Graduates. International Journal of English Linguistics, 01(02), 203-2012.

Wednesday, April 22, 2020

WoodstockA Peacful Rock Revolution Essays -

Woodstock:A Peacful Rock Revolution Woodstock: A Peaceful Rock Revolution To some, the 60s were a decade of discovery as Americans first journeyed to the moon. Others remember the time as a decade of America's moral decline with the advent of rock and roll and its representation of sinful, inappropriate ideals. Yet for many people, the 60s symbolized a decade of love and harmony. Hippies exemplified these beliefs, and in 1969 they gathered at a music festival known as Woodstock to celebrate their music, their love, and their freedom in a concert that has remained on of the most influential events of the 60s. The youth of the 60s were known as the Love generation. They made love promiscuously and openly, and preferred open to formal marriages. Weekend love-ins, free form gatherings, communal living quarters, and rock festivals were held in response to the love movement. The love movement was the hippie belief for peace and harmony. It reached its peak in the summer of 1967, and by then it had over 300,000 followers who referred to themselves as the love children or the gentle people. They gathered in San Francisco, the hippie center of the world, during the summers. During these Summers of love, they lived on the streets of Haight-Ashbury, sitting in groups along the street and strumming their guitars (Frike 62). These love children, otherwise known as the hippies were the result of the antiwar Shakoor 2 movement that was sweeping the nation during the Vietnam war. Hippies were resolutely against the war. They participated loudly, and often violently in countless anti-war protest rallies and marches. They were known to publicly burn draft cards, and some even renounced military service for prison (Hertsgard 124). Hippies were not only antiwar, they were predominantly antiestablishment. The status symbols of their elders were decisively rejected: wealth, social position, culture, physical attractiveness, and economic security. They held in disdain, cosmetics, expensive jewelry, nightclubs and restaurants and all other refinements of the affluent society. Wealth meant nothing to them. Personal freedom to express oneself was believed to be the most important thing in life. They were antiauthority, antirace discrimination, and antipollution, in short they were rebels against the society, fighting against the moral standards of America they felt were unjust (Hertsgard 153). Events such as rock concerts soon became a platform against the repressive government and accepted morals. Such events provided opportunities to express their resentment. The rock concert of Woodstock was a prime example. It was described by psychoanalyst Rollo May as a symptomatic event of our time that showed the tremendous hunger, need, yearning for community on the part of the youth(The Big Woodstock 17). Rock concerts of the 60s had become the equivalent of a political forum for the young for the expression of political ideas, the spirit of community and awareness of the world around. Woodstock was a celebration of joy which wiped out, at least temporarily, the persistent feelings of meaninglessness that permeate our culture This concert, held in Bethel, New York, in August of 1969, has become a symbol of the 60s. It is a symbol of the hippie culture embodied in Shakoor 3 the youth of the time. This concert was the Woodstock Music and Art Fair. Billed by its youthful Manhattan promoters as An Aquarian Exposition, it promised music, peace, and great rock and roll. By a conservative estimate, more than 400,000 people, the vast majority of them between the ages of 16 and 30, showed up for the Woodstock festival. Thousands more would come if police had not blocked off access roads, which had become parking lots choked with stalled cars. The multitude of cars and people also forced the New York Thruway to close, creating one of the nation's worst traffic jams (Peace Mecca 10). People walked as many as twenty miles to get to the concert, all the while singing songs of peace and love and carrying placards displaying their hippie sentiments. Among the many were Keep America Beautiful-Stay Stoned, Love is Power, and Flower Power. Flowers, along with a dove perched upon a guitar became the symbols of the festival. These images were painted on cars, clothes and even bodies (Rock Audience). Their shabby clothes were a